Does your puppy have “shark mouth”?

Just like humans, dogs and cats have two sets of teeth that develop during their lifetime. The first set of teeth, sometimes called “baby” teeth are also called deciduous teeth.  These teeth are present early in life, and then are shed as the developing permanent teeth erupt into position. Deciduous teeth in puppies and kittens will fall out as the adult teeth come in — often times the roots of the baby teeth are resorbed and the outer visible part of the tooth becomes very loose!  If the adult teeth have come in but the baby teeth HAVEN’T fallen out, this is called a retained deciduous tooth.  The baby teeth should be promptly removed by your veterinarian.  The baby teeth crowd the adult teeth, making room for plaque and tartar to build up.  This can cause the adult teeth to become loose, causing major problems down the road.

This condition is very common in small breed puppies, specifically Dachshunds, Yorkshire terriers, Chihuahua, Maltese, Shih Tzu, and Pug breeds.  The best plan of action is to have your veterinarian remove the teeth under general anesthesia when the pet is spayed or neutered.  Sometimes, they can even be removed under deep sedation if you choose not to spay or neuter your pet.  Believe it or not, we have met 10-year-old Chihuahuas with their deciduous teeth cemented to their adult teeth with thick calculus!  This means a long anesthetic procedure for the pet to remove both the deciduous and adult teeth — such a procedure can become very expensive for the owner as well.  Not to mention, thick tartar causes bad breath and heart, liver, and kidney problems!

Puppies and kittens usually start to lose their deciduous teeth and gain their adult teeth between the ages of four to six months old.  If the deciduous teeth are persistent after that time, please consult with your vet and schedule to have them removed.


Bringing Home Baby: Children & Pets

The birth of a baby or adoption of a new child is associated with a great deal of anxiety, excitement, and stress for not only the family, but also the family pet. Some dogs and cats can have a difficult time adjusting to these changes, especially if this is your first child, but preparation and planning will help.

How is my pet likely to respond to the new arrival?

There are so many different variables that it is impossible to accurately predict the way that any pet might get along with children. However, there are considerations that give some insight into how your pet might react.

How much exposure has your pet had previously to children?  How has your pet reacted when it has been exposed?  The most serious concern would be with a pet that has previously reacted aggressively or fearfully with children. If there have been previous problems you should consult with a veterinary behaviorist to determine the situations that have previously led to aggression, and the safest way, if any, to make the transition.

The veterinary behaviorist that we recommend is Dr. Vanya Moreno, PhD of Animal Magnetism.

The next most serious concern is the pet that has had little or no exposure to young children or babies. Without any prior experience it is difficult to predict how the dog may react. A lack of early socialization to children may lead to some initial anxiety or fear associated with the sights, sounds and odors of the new child. If there are no unpleasant experiences when the child first arrives, and the first few introductions are made positive, there may be no problems. Even if a pet has shown no previous problems when interacting with children, keeping all introductions positive will help to get the relationship between your pet and your new child off to a good start.

One final concern is the growth and development of your child. As your child progresses from being carried to one that rolls, crawls, and begins to walk, and so on through childhood, some pets may have trouble adapting to one or more of these changes. Fear, dominance challenges, possessive displays, and playful behaviors could result in aggression. Anxiety or fear could lead to anorexia, compulsive disorders (e.g. flank sucking, acral lick dermatitis), or destructiveness (e.g. house-soiling, marking, chewing, digging). Remember, regardless of how your pet may respond, a dog and a young child should never be left alone unsupervised.

What can we do to prepare for the new arrival?

Behavior problems (destructiveness, house-soiling, compulsive disorders, increased demands for attention, generalized anxiety) may not develop directly from the arrival of the child, but rather from the changes in the household, associated with the new arrival. With nine months or more to prepare for a baby’s arrival, the best way to minimize problems and help the pet to cope is to make changes gradually so that they have been completed prior to the arrival of the child.  Design a daily routine of social times and alone times that can be practically maintained after the baby arrives.  Be certain that the program meets all of the dog’s needs for physical activity, social contact and object play / chew toys.  Set up the nursery in advance and if the pet is to be kept out of the room, access should be denied before the child’s arrival. Otherwise, if your intention is to allow your pet to continue to enter the room when supervised, begin to accompany your pet into the nursery, so that it can adapt to the new odors and new setup. The dog should be allowed to investigate the baby’s room, blankets, and new furniture, and praised or given a small food treat so that it can develop a positive association with each of these new cues.

Is crate training advisable?

It also might be prudent to teach your pet how to be comfortably confined in a safe, secure and relaxing area.  With new children in the home, unexpected visitors and the other disruptions that go with a changing household it would be beneficial if the dog were able to be placed in another location without showing distress or anxiety.  It might help to provide the dog with a stuffed chew toy to make the time more enjoyable.  The goal is for the dog to learn how to be comfortable in a separate, safe and secure location without you while you are home.

Are there more specific preparations that I can make as the time of arrival approaches?

Some pets might become anxious of, or fearful toward, any of the new and different stimuli associated with the sights, sounds, or odors of the new child. New activities associated with childcare can be practiced in front of pets so that they can become familiar with them. Tape recordings or videos of babies crying, holding a doll wrapped in a blanket, taking your dog for a walk beside a stroller or baby carriage, or even going through the motions of changing a diaper and applying baby powder will simulate some of the experiences to which your pet will soon be exposed.

Is there anything special I should do for my cat to prepare for the arrival of a child?

For cats, the most important adaptation is to any changes that will be needed in the cat’s home. Although fear and anxiety to the sights and sounds of a new baby are possible, adapting to changes in the household are often the most trying for cats. For example, obtaining new furniture, altering the cat’s feeding, sleeping, elimination or play areas, and trying to keep the cat out of certain locations such as the crib, should all be considered before the arrival of the baby. To reduce the chances of the cat marking new furniture, the first few introductions to the new areas should be well supervised. Once your cat has investigated and rubbed against the new furniture, spraying is far less likely. Similarly, when the crib or cradle is first set up, the cat may wish to mark the area, or investigate, or even to sleep in the crib.

At our practice, we love to use Feliway spray.  This spray is a pheromone stray that mimics the pheromones relaxed, happy cats produce.  We find that it helps calm stressed or anxious cats.  It is also available in a plug-in form for your home and a collar that the cat can wear.

What should be done when the baby arrives?

Progress gradually, avoid any situations that might lead to fear, anxiety or discomfort in the baby’s presence and make all associations and experiences in the baby’s presence positive. Maintain or even increase the amount and type of training, exercise, and play. When necessary use your pre-trained confinement area when you need to concentrate on the baby without interruption.

Even a curious and affectionate pet may have some problems adjusting to the new arrival. Jumping up to greet when the baby is being carried, barking during the baby’s sleep or nap times, raiding the diaper pail, licking the baby’s face, or cuddling up to sleep against an infant who is still unable to shift position are just a few of the concerns and potential problems that pet owners may need to deal with. Keep your pet’s nails well trimmed. Supervise all interactions between the pet and baby. Keep the pet out of the baby’s room during nap and sleeping times. Ensure that your dog is well controlled and responsive to obedience training commands. For some dogs, leaving a leash attached (preferably to a head collar) is a useful way to ensure additional control.

The most important aspect of retraining is to reward the pet for obedient and relaxed behavior in the presence of the child. In many households there will be less time and energy available for the pet. While focused on the child, or attending to the chores associated with parenthood, the pet may be ignored, disciplined for approaching too close, or confined to a different area of the home. Your pet may still receive its play, exercise, affection, food and attention, but often not until the baby is finally asleep or is under the care of some other family member. Many pets soon learn that the presence of the baby is a time for inattention, confinement, or even punishment, while the absence of the baby is a cue for “good things” to happen. This must be reversed. Every effort should be made to allow the pet into the room for food, play or affection when the baby is present. Feed the pet when the baby is being fed, or have another family member give affection to the pet, play with the pet, or do some reward training (stay, go to your mat) when the child is in the room. Take your dog outdoors for play or a walk when you are taking the child out. The goal is to teach the pet that positives or “good things” are most likely to happen in the presence of the child and to avoid any negative association with the child.

How can I teach my children to be safe around pets?

Although there are no rules that will guarantee safety, there are important guidelines that can be followed to reduce the chances of problems and the risk of injury. The first rule of thumb is to avoid doing anything to the dog that you might not want your child to do. This would include physical punishment, rough play, or teasing. Children must be taught how to interact with and handle their family pet including how to approach, pat or lift small pets.

Wherever possible, play sessions and training should include the children with the supervision of a parent. This can begin from the time the dog is a puppy by attending puppy classes and obedience classes that include all members of the family. If the pet has not previously exhibited possessiveness of food or toys, the adults can practice with the children approaching the dog at its food bowl, patting and giving favored treats, along with teaching the give or drop command for favored treats. It may be best to use a leash and head halter during this training if there is any concern that the dog might resist or become anxious.

While your dog may appear to tolerate or even enjoy handling from people of all ages, you must teach your child how to meet, greet and handle animals. The child will be safest if taught to avoid hugging, tugging on the leash, collar or tail and handling around the eyes, ears and muzzle. Even if the dog is familiar it is best to avoid reaching toward the head or face-to-face greetings.

Children must also be taught that strange pets may not behave in the same way as their family pet. A simple rule is that the child should NEVER approach another family’s pet without being given permission and then to approach slowly and avoid reaching for the head and face. Children should be taught to avoid pets entirely if they are displaying any signs that might indicate fearfulness (shaking, ears back, tail between legs, crouch, trying to escape) or aggression (growling, showing teeth, barking, hair standing on end).

  This client information sheet is based on material written by Debra Horwitz, DVM, Diplomate ACVB & Gary Landsberg, DVM, Diplomate ACVB

© Copyright 2005 Lifelearn Inc. Used with permission under license. April 24, 2013

Pet Insurance FAQ

Pet insurance helps you afford your veterinary bills for your dog or cat. It can help you avoid a tough financial decision about your pet’s health.  Many providers have different level of coverage plans to protect your pet for accidents, illnesses and even wellness care. Plus, by protecting your best friend with pet medical insurance when he or she is young and healthy, you can be financially prepared for the unexpected while getting help to afford preventive care to keep your dog in top shape.

What does it cover?

Pet insurance typically protects pets in case of accidents or illnesses. But veterinary pet insurance doesn’t have to be just for the unexpected! Because wellness care is so important to keep your pet happy and healthy,

Why do I need it?

Veterinary care is getting more expensive, especially as more sophisticated diagnostics and treatments become available for animals. For instance, veterinarians can now use MRI technology and chemotherapy to treat their pet patients.

What does pet insurance cost?

Pet insurance helps you financially prepare for the unexpected. This is especially important when you consider a single incident can run into hundreds or even thousands of dollars in veterinary bills. Your veterinary pet insurance premium will depend on a few factors like the level of coverage you pick, your geographic area and the breed and age of your pet.

Can I stay with my veterinarian?

Yes! With most companies, you don’t have to leave your trusted veterinarian or choose from a list of providers. With most pet insurance, you can visit ANY licensed veterinarian in the US or Canada, including specialists and emergency care doctors. This way, your pet is also covered if you’re traveling.

How does the deductible work?

This depends on which company and plan you choose.  Some deductibles only needs to be met once per plan year, no matter how many incidents occur. In contrast, per incident deductibles require you to pay a new deductible for every single injury or illness, which can really add up. You can also customize your plan with other annual deductible and co-insurance options.

How long does it take to get reimbursed?

With most providers, turnaround time typically averages two weeks or less. Many providers have an online function to help track your claim.

No one wants to think about a beloved pet getting hurt or sick, but it can happen when you least expect it.  Thinking about pet insurance, getting a quote, and even taking out a policy for your pet BEFORE disaster strikes will give you peace of mind and allow you to help your pet.



Ouch! How to Handle Cat Bites

We have met many pet owners that have been bitten or scratched by their own cat!  Whether rounding them up in the carrier, giving medications, or helping an injured cat — an angry feline is nothing to mess with.  The mouth of your cat is one of the most bacteria-ridden places in your home.  As such, it can cause serious infection and infammation to broken skin.

“Cat bites are highly infectious,” says Dawn Quinn, a registered nurse. “The deeper the bite, the greater the chances are that it can become infected.”

These bites are exceptionally dangerous and prone to infection because a cat’s needle-like teeth can push bacteria deep into flesh, tendons, and joints. The small but deep puncture wounds are hard to thoroughly clean and tend to trap bacteria inside, where it quickly spreads.

“Because cat bites carry the risk of infection,” says Quinn, “they shouldn’t be taken lightly. You can lessen your chances of developing an infection by washing your wound with antibacterial soap thoroughly and immediately. If you have Betadine on hand, you may use it to disinfect your wound.”

She says that deep puncture wounds might bleed, and that you should apply pressure to stop the bleeding, then apply a clean bandage. She also recommends visiting urgent care or an emergency room.

“A course of oral antibiotics is almost always prescribed in the case of deep puncture wounds,” she says. “Depending on the circumstances of your bite, you may need to think about rabies or tetanus infection, and a health-care provider can help you evaluate your level of risk.”

According to Quinn, infected bites will be red and painful, and might have some drainage. You mgith see bumps or blisters. Late stages of infection might result in fever, weakness, swollen lymph nodes, headache, and a general feeling of being unwell. It’s not uncommon for cats to get overstimulated during play and lash out from excitement (though it is rarer for a family cat to lash out in a way that breaks skin).

In nonplayful situations, though, there are some signals you should heed. According to Hannah Curtain, certified veterinary technician, “The biggest red flags are the vocal signals, such as yowling or hissing. Always watch for signs of fright and offensive or defensive behavior when handling a cat. A cat in danger-mode will probably be crouched with its ears and whiskers pinned back, tail down, dilated pupils; it might be growling or yowling as a warning to stay away.”

Red flags!

Remember that cats don’t inflict injury based on whether or not they “like” the person they injure, and their behavior shouldn’t be taken personally. They’re simply acting in self-preservation, striking if they feel threatened.

Curtain advises that “people who handle animals should approach them in a calm, confident manner, but they should be prepared to back off if the situation is too stressful for themselves or the animal. Animals can sense when a handler’s energy is off and can interpret this as a threat. Just like people, animals sometimes just need a break to cool down and then the situation can be approached again.”



Calling All Cats!

Have you heard? Dr. Krauss will be giving an educational lecture on Saturday, April 20th at Empire High School’s library. The lecture will cover nutrition, basic husbandry, and delve into the 7 Critical Diseases Every Cat Owner Should Know About. This lecture is free to our clients and the public — but it is RSVP only! Please RSVP to or 520.624.6100 to save your spot.